- Period: 2004/09/11 - present
- Region: Gulf Stream
- PI(s): Robert Todd, Breck Owens [WHOI]
- Funded by: National Science Foundation, Office of Naval Research, NOAA’s Global Ocean Monitoring and Observing Program (GOMO), Eastman, WHOI
The overarching goal of this project is to collect high resolution transects across the Gulf Stream. Though the speed of the Gulf Stream greatly exceeds the speed of a glider, gliders can be flown across the current as they are advected downstream. Missions prior to 2015 were conducted downstream (northeast) of Cape Hatteras, primarily between Cape Cod and Bermuda; missions since 2015 begin in Miami, FL and are planned to end on the New England continental shelf. During a typical 100-day mission between Miami and Cape Cod, a single glider completes 6-10 crossings of the Gulf Stream, returning approximately 800 profiles to the shallower of the sea floor or 1000 m. The current operational goal is to maintain at least one glider in the Gulf Stream at all times. Additional plots of these data are available at http://gliders.whoi.edu.
All the data for this project is available in CF compliant netCDF(s), thus ancillary metadata is embeded inside those.
When using this dataset, please cite:
Todd, R., & Owens, B. (2016). Gliders in the Gulf Stream [Data set]. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Instrument Development Group. doi: 10.21238/S8SPRAY2675
We strongly recommend the netCDF listed above. If you prefer, alternative formats are available through our ERDDAP server.
Some basic plots of this project are available for preview.
- Todd, R.E. (2021), Gulf Stream mean and eddy kinetic energy: Three-dimensional estimates from underwater glider observations, Geophys. Res. Lett.., 48(6), e2020GL090281;
- Heiderich, J., R.E. Todd (2020), Along-stream evolution of Gulf Stream volume transport, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 50(8), 2251-2270;
- McWilliams, J. C., Gula, J., & Molemaker, M. J. (2019). The Gulf Stream North Wall: Ageostrophic Circulation and Frontogenesis. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 49(4), 893-916.;
- Gula, J., T.M. Blacic, R.E. Todd (2019), Submesoscale coherent vortices in the Gulf Stream, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 2704-2714;
- Todd, R. E., Asher, T. G., Heiderich, J., Bane, J. M., & Luettich, R. A. (2018). Transient response of the Gulf Stream to multiple hurricanes in 2017. Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 10,509–10,519;
- Todd, R.E. and L. Locke-Wynn (2017), Underwater glider observations and the representation of western boundary currents in numerical models, Oceanography, 30(2), 88-89;
- Todd, R.E. (2017), High-frequency internal waves and thick bottom mixed layers observed by gliders in the Gulf Stream, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44(12), 6316-6325;
- Todd, R. E., Rudnick, D. L., Sherman, J. T., Owens, W. B., & George, L. (2017). Absolute velocity estimates from autonomous underwater gliders equipped with Doppler current profilers. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 34(2), 309-333;
- Todd, R. E., Owens, W. B., & Rudnick, D. L. (2016). Potential vorticity structure in the North Atlantic western boundary current from underwater glider observations. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 46(1), 327-348;