The CUGN includes gliders on four of the traditional cross-shore CalCOFI lines, Line 56.7 off Bodega Bay, Line 66.7 off Monterey Bay, line 80 off Point Conception, and line 90 off Dana Point, and on an alongshore line at CalCOFI station 60 that connects lines 80 and 90.

California Underwater Glider Network

Sustained baseline observations of climate variability off the coast of California

Autonomous underwater ocean gliders are deployed in a network to provide real-time data. Spray gliders repeatedly dive from the surface to 500-m and back along a path. Each of these dives is about 3-km long and takes about 3-hours. A full glider mission typically lasts about 100 days, covers over 2000-km and provides four to six full transects.

Applications for CUGN glider data include ocean heat waves, algal blooms, storms, fisheries impacts, marine operations, oil spill response, and weather forecasts.


Time Span
2005-Present
Observations
Temperature, Salinity, Chlorophyll, Currents, Acoustic Backscatter, Dissolved Oxygen
Region
California Coast (Pacific)
Principal Investigator
Daniel Rudnick
Funded by
NOAA's GOMO Program, SCCOOS, CeNCOOS

Science Quality Binned Project Data

Cleaned, post-processed and vertically binned to meet user needs

Project Dataset Processing

After each glider mission the data are post-processed and added to the Project Dataset file.

  • Data are averaged to 10-m vertical bins
  • Vertical binning improves ease of use
  • The 10-m bins allows for easy integration of ADCP acoustic backscatter and velocity data
  • Data are filtered using QC flags
  • Only high quality data are represented in each bin

Access Options

Data are available in NetCDF files and are also available via our ERDDAP server which offers additional file types, data subsetting, visualization options and more.

Along-Shore Line
MAR 2017 - PRESENT
MAR 2017 - PRESENT
The along-shore line transects between Line 80 and Line 90 offshore of the Channel Islands.
Line 56
DEC 2019 - PRESENT
Line 56 is off the coast off Point Arena, which is between Bodega Bay and the San Francisco Bay.
Line 66
APR 2007 - PRESENT
The Line 66 cross-shore transect extends offshore of Monterey Bay towards the southwest.
Line 80
OCT 2005 - PRESENT
The Line 80 transect extends offshore of Point Conception, just northwest of Santa Barbara.
Line 90
OCT 2006 - PRESENT
Line 90 extends southwest from Dana Point in Los Angeles, through the Channel Islands out to the waters deep offshore.
Line 93
APR 2005 - MAY 2006
Line 93 extended southwest from San Diego and was operational for about a year before Line 90 glider operations were established.

How to Cite

When using this dataset, please cite the data as:

Rudnick, D. (2016). California Underwater Glider Network [Data set]. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Instrument Development Group. doi: 10.21238/S8SPRAY1618

Science Quality Full Resolution Data

Science quality data are also available in unbinned full-resolution format in delayed mode after each mission is complete. Binned project data are provided to meet most user needs but the underlying data for those files are also available. We refer to these as the science-quality full-resolution mission data. This data product offers the same delayed-mode quality control as the binned project files but the data have not been vertically binned.

These files may be appropriate when detailed vertical resolution is needed. These full-resolution data are more complicated to work with as each profile and observation is heterogenous in four dimensions. If higher resolution is not required, for ease of use, we encourage using the binned project data instead.

Publications

Ren, A. S., D. L. Rudnick, and A. Twombly, 2023: Drift characteristics of Sea-Bird dissolved oxygen optode sensors. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-22-0103.1.
Werb, B. E., & Rudnick, D. L. (2023). Remarkable changes in the dominant modes of north Pacific sea surface temperature. Geophysical Research Letters, 50, e2022GL101078; doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GL101078
Kurapov, A. L., D. L. Rudnick, B. T. Cervantes, and C. M. Risien, 2022: Slope and shelf flow anomalies off Oregon influenced by the El Niño remote oceanic mechanism in 2014-16. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans,; doi: 10.1029/2022JC018604
Thompson, A. R., E. Bjorkstedt, S. J. Bograd, J. L. Fisher, E. L. Hazen, A. Leising, J. Santora, E. V. Sattherthwaite, W. J. Sydeman, M. Alksne, T. D. Auth, S. Baumann-Pickering, N. M. Bowlin, B. J. Burke, E. A. Daly, H. Dewar, J. C. Field, N. T. Garfield, A. Giddings, R. Goericke, J. Hildebrand, C. A. Horton, K. Jacobson, M. Jacox, J. Jahncke, M. Johns, J. Jones, R. M. Kudela, S. R. Melin, C. A. Morgan, C. F. Nickels, R. A. Orben, J. M. Porquez, E. J. Portner, A. Preti, R. R. Robertson, D. L. Rudnick, K. M. Sakuma, I. D. Schroeder, O. E. Snodgrass, S. A. Thompson, J. S. Trickey, P. Warzybok, W. Watson, and E. D. Weber, 2022: State of the California Current Ecosystem in 2021: Winter Is Coming? Frontiers in Marine Science; doi: 10.3389/fmars.2022.958727
Ren, A. S. and D. L. Rudnick, 2022: Across-shore propagation of subthermocline eddies in the California Current System. Journal of Physical Oceanography; doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-21-0137.1
Grégoire, M., V. Garçon, H. Garcia, D. Breitburg, K. Isensee, A. Oschlies, M. Telszewski, A. Barth, H. Bittig, J. Carstensen, T. Carval, F. Chai, F. Chavez, D. Conley, L. Coppola, S. Crowe, K. Currie, M. Dai, B. Delflandre, B. Dewitte, R. Diaz, E. Garcia-Robledo, D. Gilbert, A. Giorgetti, R. Glud, D. Gutierrez, S. Hosoda, M. Ishii, G. Jacinto, C. Langdon, S. K. Lauvset, L. A. Levin, K. E. Limburg, H. Mehrtens, I. Montes, W. Naqvi, A. Paulmier, B. Pfeil, G. Pitcher, S. Pouliquen, N. Rabalais, C. Rabouille, V. Recape, M. Roman, K. Rose, D. Rudnick, J. Rummer, C. Schmechtig, S. Schmidtko, B. Seibel, C. Slomp, U. R. Sumalia, T. Tanhua, V. Thierry, H. Uchida, R. Wanninkhof, and M. Yasuhara, 2021: A global ocean oxygen database and atlas for assessing and predicting deoxygenation and ocean health in the open and coastal ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science, 8; doi: 10.3389/fmars.2021.724913
Weber, E. D., T. D. Auth, S. Baumann-Pickering, T. R. Baumgartner, E. P. Bjorkstedt, S. J. Bograd, B. J. Burke, J. L. Cadena-Ramírez, E. A. Daly, M. de la Cruz, H. Dewar, J. C. Field, J. L. Fisher, A. Giddings, R. Goericke, E. Gomez-Ocampo, J. Gomez-Valdes, E. L. Hazen, J. Hildebrand, C. A. Horton, K. C. Jacobson, M. G. Jacox, J. Jahncke, M. Kahru, R. M. Kudela, B. E. Lavaniegos, A. Leising, S. R. Melin, L. E. Miranda-Bojorquez, C. A. Morgan, C. F. Nickels, R. A. Orben, J. M. Porquez, E. J. Portner, R. R. Robertson, D. L. Rudnick, K. M. Sakuma, J. A. Santora, I. D. Schroeder, O. E. Snodgrass, W. J. Sydeman, A. R. Thompson, S. A. Thompson, J. S. Trickey, J. Villegas-Mendoza, P. Warzybok, W. Watson, and S. M. Zeman, 2021: State of the California Current 2019–2020: Back to the Future With Marine Heatwaves? Frontiers in Marine Science, 8; doi: 10.3389/fmars.2021.709454
Ren, A. S. and D. L. Rudnick, 2021: Temperature and salinity extremes from 2014-2019 in the California Current System and its source waters. Communications Earth & Environment, 2; doi: 10.1038/s43247-021-00131-9
Takeshita, Y., B. Jones, K. S. Johnson, F. P. Chavez, D. L. Rudnick, M. Blum, K. Conner, S. Jensen, J. S. Long, T. Maughan, K. Mertz, J. T. Sherman, and J. K. Warren, 2021: Accurate pH and O2 measurements from Spray underwater gliders. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 38, 181-195.; doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-20-0095.1
Fumo, J. T., M. L. Carter, R. E. Flick, L. L. Rasmussen, D. L. Rudnick, and S. F. Iacobellis, 2020: Contextualizing marine heatwaves in the Southern California Bight under anthropogenic climate change. Journal of Geophysical Research; doi: 10.1029/2019JC015674
Zaba, K. D., D. L. Rudnick, B. D. Cornuelle, G. Gopalakrishnan, and M. R. Mazloff, 2020: Volume and heat budgets in the coastal California Current System: Means, annual cycles and interannual anomalies of 2014-2016. Journal of Physical Oceanography; doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-19-0271.1
Davis, R. E., L. D. Talley, D. Roemmich, B. Owens, D. L. Rudnick, J. Toole, R. Weller, M. J. McPhadden, and J. A. Barth, 2019: 100 Years of Progress in Ocean Observing Systems. Meteorological Monographs; doi: 10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-18-0014.1
Zaba, K. D., D. L. Rudnick, B. D. Cornuelle, G. Gopalakrishnan, and M. R. Mazloff, 2018: Annual and interannual variability in the California Current System: Comparison of an assimilating state estimate with a network of underwater gliders. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 48, 2965-2988; doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-18-0037.1
Rudnick, D. L., Sherman, J. T., & Wu, A. P. (2018). Depth-average velocity from Spray underwater gliders. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, (2018), 35, 1665-1673; doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-17-0200.1
Chao, Y., J. D. Farrara, H. Zhang, K. J. Armenta, L. Centurioni, F. Chavez, R. Davis, J. B. Girton, D. Rudnick, and R. K. Walter (2018), Development, implementation and validation of a California coastal ocean modeling, data assimilation and forecasting system, Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 151, 49-63; doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2017.04.013
Chao, Y., Farrara, J. D., Bjorkstedt, E., Chai, F., Chavez, F., Rudnick, D. L., Enright, W., Fisher, J. L., Peterson, W. T., Welch, G. F., Davis, C. O., Dugdale, R. C., Wilkerson, F. P., Zhang, H., Zhang, Y., Ateljevich, E. and Davis, C. O. (2017). The origins of the anomalous warming in the California coastal ocean and San Francisco Bay during 2014‐2016. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122(9), 7537-7557; doi: 10.1002/2017JC013120
Itoh, S., and Rudnick, D. L. (2017). Fine‐scale variability of isopycnal salinity in the California Current System. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans; doi: 10.1002/2017JC013080
Kurapov, A. B., N. A. Pelland, and D. L. Rudnick (2017), Seasonal and interannual variability in alongslope oceanic properties off the US West Coast: inferences from a high-resolution regional model, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122(7), 5237–5259; doi: 10.1002/2017JC012721
Rudnick, D. L., K. D. Zaba, R. E. Todd, and R. E. Davis, 2017: A climatology of the California Current System from a network of underwater gliders. Progress in Oceanography, 154, 64-106; doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2017.03.002
Jacox, M. G., Hazen, E. L., Zaba, K. D., Rudnick, D. L., Edwards, C. A., Moore, A. M., & Bograd, S. J. (2016). Impacts of the 2015–2016 El Niño on the California Current System: Early assessment and comparison to past events. Geophysical Research Letters, 43(13), 7072-7080; doi: 10.1002/2016GL069716
Zaba, K. D., & Rudnick, D. L. (2016). The 2014–2015 warming anomaly in the Southern California Current System observed by underwater gliders. Geophysical Research Letters, 43(3), 1241-1248; doi: 10.1002/2015GL067550
Jacox, M. G., Edwards, C. A., Kahru, M., Rudnick, D. L., & Kudela, R. M. (2015). The potential for improving remote primary productivity estimates through subsurface chlorophyll and irradiance measurement. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 112, 107-116; doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.12.008
Johnston, T. M. S. and D. L. Rudnick, 2015: Mixing estimates in the California Current System from sustained observations by underwater gliders. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 112, 61-78; doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.03.009
Ohman, M. D., Rudnick, D. L., Chekalyuk, A., Davis, R. E., Feely, R. A., Kahru, M., ... & Send, U. (2013). Autonomous ocean measurements in the California Current Ecosystem. Oceanography, 26(3); doi: 10.5670/oceanog.2013.41
McClatchie, S., R. Cowen, K. Nieto, A. Greer, J. Y. Luo, C. Guigand, D. Demer, D. Griffith, and D. Rudnick (2012). Resolution of fine biological structure including small narcomedusae across a front in the Southern California Bight. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 117(C4); doi: 10.1029/2011JC007565
Todd, R. E., Rudnick, D. L., Mazloff, M. R., Cornuelle, B. D., & Davis, R. E. (2012). Thermohaline structure in the California Current System: Observations and modeling of spice variance. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 117(C2); doi: 10.1029/2011JC007589
Todd, R. E., Rudnick, D. L., Davis, R. E., & Ohman, M. D. (2011). Underwater gliders reveal rapid arrival of El Niño effects off California's coast. Geophysical Research Letters, 38(3); doi: 10.1029/2010GL046376
Todd, R. E., D. L. Rudnick, M. R. Mazloff, R. E. Davis, and B. D. Cornuelle, 2011: Poleward flows in the southern California Current System: Glider observations and numerical simulation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, C02026; doi: 10.1029/2010JC006536
Todd, R. E., Rudnick, D. L., & Davis, R. E. (2009). Monitoring the greater San Pedro Bay region using autonomous underwater gliders during fall of 2006. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 114(C6); doi: 10.1029/2008JC005086
Davis, R. E., M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, J. T. Sherman, and B. Hodges, 2008: Glider surveillance of physics and biology in the southern California Current system. Limnology and Oceanography, 53, 2151-2168.; doi: 10.4319/lo.2008.53.5_part_2.2151